Destination      Units                                                     Departed      Arrived
    Gull Force
              Ambon             2/21st Infantry Battalion                           ex-Darwin    Ambon
    C Troop 18th A-T Battery                       on 14/12/41  on 17/12/41
    No.3 Section 2/11th Field Coy. R.A.E.
                                            B Coy. 2/12th Field Ambulance
                                                        104 Light Aid Detachment
    23rd Special Dental Unit
                                                        A.A.S.C. contingent
    No.13 & No.2 Squadrons R.A.A.F.

    Notes: Australian forces were under the command of Lt.-Col. L.N. Roach however the local Dutch
    commander, Lt.-Col. J.R.L. Kapitz was senior and organised defences. Col. Roach complained to
    A.H.Q. Melbourne about inadequate defences, supplied and strategies so he was recalled on
    th January and replaced as the Commanding Officer by Lt.-Col. John Scott from Melbourne.
    The Japanese commenced bombing on 6th January and landed on 30th January 1942.
    The Dutch surrendered on the following day and Scott surrendered his forces on 3
    rd February, 1942.

  2.                             Destination      Units                                                         Departed      Arrived
    Lark Force
             Kavieng,          Japs invaded 22nd January and took Kavieng without opposition
    New Ireland    1st Independent Coy. (Based on New Ireland)
                               Rabaul,            2/22nd Infantry Battalion                               ex-Sydney    Rabaul
                                New Britain     New Guinea Volunteer Rifles                         on 17/4/41    on 26/4/41
                                                       ‘L’ Heavy Battery, Praed Point Battery
                                                       ‘L’ Fortress Engineers, Praed Point
                                                       ‘L’ Point Fortress Signals, Praed Point
                                                       ‘L’ Anti-Aircraft Battery
                                                        A & B Troops, 17th Anti-Tank Battery
                                                       (ex-23rd Anti-Tank Battery)
                                                        ? Coy. R.A.E.
                                                        ? Coy. 2/10th Field Ambulance
                                                        19th Special Dental Unit
                                                        Australian Army Nursing Service
    Australian Army Ordnance Corps
    Australian Army Service Corps
                                                        No.24 Squadron (4 only), R.A.A.F. and 10 Wirraway trainers

    Notes: Commanding Officer of Lark Force was Lt.-Col. John Scanlan. As New Guinea and New Britain
    were Australian Protectorates, initial forces were in place before the Pearl Harbor attack.
    Japanese started
    bombing Rabaul on 4
    th January 1942 and landed after midnight on 23rd January 1942. They captured
    Rabaul with the loss of only 16 men on the same day. About 160 members of Lark Force were massacred
    at the Tol Plantation circa. 4
    th February, another 35 were shot at Waitayalo Plantation and a further
    1,053 p-o-w’s drowned when the ‘Montevideo Maru’ was torpedoed en route to Japan by the U.S.S. ‘Sturgeon’ on 1
    st July 1942.

  3.                             Destination       Units                                                        Departed      Arrived
    Robin Force       New Caledonia  ? Heavy Battery, Ouen Toro                      ex-Sydney?    Noumea
                                                         ? Fortress Engineers                                  in 7/41          on 21/7/41
                                                         3rd Independent Coy.                               ex-Darwin in 12/41
    Notes: The Japanese did not attack New Caledonia although local Free French Forces were trained on the guns,
    most of the Force returned to Australia. 3
    rd Ind. Coy. returned early 8/42.

                                                          ? = uncertain/not yet confirmed detail
  4.                             Destination      Units                                                         Departed      Arrived
    Sparrow Force
      Timor                2/40th Infantry Battalion                             ex-Darwin    Usapa Besar
    2/1st Heavy Battery                                    on 10/12/41  on 12/12/41
                                                        2/1st Fortress Engineers
                                                         2/1st Fortress Signals
    No.2 Section 2/11th Field Coy. R.A.E.
                                                         2/12th Field Ambulance
                                                     B Troop 18th Anti-Tank Battery
                                                         75th Light Aid Detachment
    22nd Dental Unit
                                                         A.A.S.C. contingent
                                                         A & C Troops, 79th Light A-A Battery (UK)
    No.2 Squadron, R.A.A.F.
    2nd Independent Coy. (Based on East Timor)

    Notes: Japanese air activity over West Timor started on 25
    th January 1942 with a 'Betty' or 'Sally' bomber

  5.                             Destination      Units                                                         Departed      Arrived
    Plover Force
         Aru Islands        Dutch forces, 3 officers & 75 men, with further
                                of Dobo,          1 officer & 29 men from Australian forces.
    Saumlaki          Landed in July 1942, survivors taken off in September.
                               & Toeal Is.
                                Wokam?          Ill-fated occupation of the Aru Islands raised Japanese notice
                                                        and they were promptly invaded. Many members of Plover
    Force were executed.

  6.                             Destination      Units                                                         Departed      Arrived
    Emu Force
            New Guinea      /                                                                ex-Sydney    Port Moresby
                                                        /                                                                on 17/12/41  on ?/12/41
                                In 23rd Brigade paperwork Dec. 1941 on HMT Pa,
                                Eastern Command
    . 187 officers, total 4,026 men departed from Sydney circa. 17/12/1941
                                Mention in 23rd Brigade records

  7. Other Force designations during WW2 in the Pacific include...
    Rose Force (Malaya, various units operated behind Japanese lines until Jan. 1942)
    Poppy Force (mentioned with Robin Force)

    Tulip Force (members 8
    th Div. Ex-Malaya sent to China)
    Elbow Force (Singapore/Malaya, surrendered 15 Feb. 1942)
    Black Force (Java, 7th Division from North Africa, surrendered 8 Mar. 1942)
    Brewer Force (NGVR & US forces)

    Maroubra Force (39
    th Aust. Militia Btn. & Papuan Inf. Btn. to Kokoda)
    Kanga Force (5th Ind. Coy. & NGVR to New Guinea behind Japanese lines)
    M Special Force (mostly PNG native soldiers in New Guinea)
    Z Special Force (commando groups inserted into Japanese-held territory)


    Brewer Force (NGVR & US forces to Los Negros, NGVR won US Presidential Citation)
    Maroubra Force to Kokoda (39th Aust. Milita Btn. & Papua Infantry Btn.)
    Kanga Force to New Guinea (5th Ind. Coy & NGVR). First unit flown behind enemy lines in WW2.

    Z Special Force
    M Special Force - New Guinea (mainly Papuan & New Guinea native soldiers)
    Tulip Force to China (members of 8 Division ex-Malaya)

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